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Microscopic features and chromatographic fingerprints of selected congolese medicinal plants: Aframomum alboviolaceum (Ridley) K. Schum, Annona senegalensis Pers. and Mondia whitei (Hook.f.) Skeels

Author: C. L. Inkoto, G. N. Bongo, P. M. Kapepula, C. A. Masengo, B. Z. Gbolo, C. Tshiama, N. K. Ngombe, J. B. Iteku, T. M. Fundu, P. T. Mpiana, K. N. Ngbolua

Category: Research Article

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Nearly 80% of people depend on the traditional medicines for their primary health care according to the World Health Organization. In fact, the study of plant chemistry is still a relevant subject despite its antiquity. The main objective of this study was to determine the microscopic features of different Congolese taxa and to determine their chromatographic fingerprints. Three plant species used notably were: Aframomum alboviolaceum (Ridley) K. Schum., Annona senegalensis Pers. and Mondia whitei. The microscopic features of these plants were carried out along with their phytochemical screening by thin layer chromatography and the spectrophotometric determination of various secondary metabolites contained in these plant species. The microscopic study of A. Alboviolaceum, A. senegalensis and M. whitei revealed the presence of paracytic stomata, fibers, fragments of spiral bundles, non-glandular hairs, parenchyma with numerous starch grains, secreting hairs, fragments of punctuated vessels, as well as lignified fibers. Thin layer chromatographic analysis revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, anthraquinones, anthocyanins, tannins, irridoids, and the absence of alkaloids in all three plants. In the light of these results, it would be desirable to pursue thorough phytochemical studies in order to isolate the bioactive compounds and elucidate their structures.

Keywords: microscopic features, phytochemical screening, traditional medicine