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      <JournalTitle>Emergent Life Sciences Research</JournalTitle>
      <PISSN>2395-6658 (</PISSN>
      <EISSN>) 2395-664X (Print)</EISSN>
      <Volume-Issue>Vol 8, Issue 1, Published on 30</Volume-Issue>
      <Season>June 2022</Season>
      <ArticleType>Research Article</ArticleType>
      <ArticleTitle>Hornet pests of honey bees in the Indian Himalayas and a low cost trapping device for their eco-friendly management</ArticleTitle>
          <FirstName>Amit Umesh</FirstName>
          <FirstName>Avupati RNS</FirstName>
          <FirstName>Krishna Kant</FirstName>
      <Abstract>Honey bees suffer from a cosmic array of biotic and abiotic stress during their life cycle. The insect pests like wax moths and Dermestid beetles contribute immensely to the damage of bee colonies and reduction in honey yield in tropical regions of India. While, the bee colonies in temperate regions of Indian Himalayas, face an entirely different set of hitches that include predation of forager bees by three hornet species (Vespa mandarinia, Vespa velutina nigrithorax and Vespa tropica). The attacks on bee colonies by these hornet species compel the bees to desert the colony and swarm away to a new habitat thus, causing severe economic losses to bee keepers. Considering the severe setbacks enforced by hornets, a low-cost hornet trap was designed. The bait ingredients and their trapping efficiency against targeted hornet species are presented herewith. It was observed that green colored bottles attracted 34 hornets of three species in 10 days, while transparent bottles attracted only seven hornets at bait proportions of 1:2:2 (Apple cedar Vinegar: orange juice: water). Moreover, to reduce the attraction of honey bees into the trap, supplementary ingredients like rotten fruits and market honey were used, which enhanced the trapping efficiency of hornets. The benefit-cost ratio of 12.30:1 was recorded after the installation of the trap, which was significantly superior to traditional method (1.64:1) of manual swatting of hornets in the apiary. The farmers are currently trained to design and use these traps for the management of hornet pests in the Indian Himalayas.</Abstract>
      <Keywords>bee keeping, honey bees, hornet trap, Indian Himalayas,  pest management</Keywords>
        <Abstract>https://emergentresearch.org/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=13923&amp;title=Hornet pests of honey bees in the Indian Himalayas and a low cost trapping device for their eco-friendly management</Abstract>