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Pages: 33-39

Date of Publication: 30-Jan-2023

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Approach and prospects of landscape genetics in livestock: A review

Author: Nistha Yadav, Anupama Mukherjee, Urmila Pannu, Gayatri Gujar

Category: Review Article


The genetic constitution is unique for each population as its composition is associated with the landscape reforms. Landscape genetics helps in understanding the structural genetic difference at population and individual levels based on gene flow in different geographical and environmental constituents. Gene flow is helpful in avoiding several adverse effects such as inbreeding, loss of heterogeneity (genetic variations), depression of population fitness, demographic problems of inbreeding and to decrease extinction risk. Livestock species are following devastating trends such as the extinction rate of biodiversity, demolition of bionetwork, and vanishing genetic diversity. This resulted adversely on livestock diversity which translates into a lack of apt reaction for future generations. Over the years, intense anthropogenic selection for highly productive cosmopolitan breeds resulted in a progressive ebb in the number of native breeds. Landscape genetics analyses are therefore very helpful in the practical conservative management of species of economic importance. In situ breed conservation can be done relevant by combining relevant information from different applied fields viz. geo-referencing, eco-climatic, epidemiological, spatial diversity at a genetic level and production aspect to strategize precedence judgments. This can be of great use to realize the genetic source of animal adaptation to the varied environmental conditions and production wise co-evolution pattern of livestock structure.

Keywords: conservation, gene flow, landscape genetics, livestock, seascape genetics