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      <JournalTitle>Emergent Life Sciences Research</JournalTitle>
      <PISSN>2395-6658 (</PISSN>
      <EISSN>) 2395-664X (Print)</EISSN>
      <ArticleType>Case Study</ArticleType>
      <ArticleTitle>Hornet Pests of honey bees in the Indian Himalayas and a low cost trapping device for their eco-friendly management</ArticleTitle>
          <FirstName>AMIT UMESH</FirstName>
      <Abstract>Honey bees suffer from a cosmic array of biotic and abiotic stress during their life cycle. The insect pests like wax moths and Dermestid beetles contribute immensely for the damage of bee colonies and reduction in honey yield in tropical regions of India. While, the bee colonies in temperate regions of Indian Himalayas, face an entirely different set of hitches that include predation of forager bees by three hornet species (Vespa mandarinia, Vespa velutina nigrithorax and Vespa tropica). The attacks on bee colonies by these hornet species compel the bees to desert the colony and swarm away to a new habitat thus, causing severe economic losses to bee keepers. Considering the severe setbacks enforced by hornets, a low cost hornet trap was designed. The bait ingredients and its trapping efficiency against targeted hornet species are presented herewith. It was observed that, green coloured bottles attracted 34 hornets of three species in a period of 10 days, while transparent bottles attracted only seven hornets at bait proportions of 1:2:2 (Apple cedar Vinegar: orange juice: water). Moreover, to reduce the attraction of honey bees into the trap, supplementary ingredients like rotten fruits and market honey were used, which enhanced the trapping efficiency of hornets. The benefit cost ratio of 12.30:1 was recorded after installation of trap, which was significantly superior over traditional method (1.64:1) of manual swatting of hornets in apiary. The farmers are currently trained to design and use these traps for management of hornet pests in the Indian Himalayas.</Abstract>
      <Keywords>Honey bees,Hornet trap,bee keeping,pest management,Indian Himalayas</Keywords>
        <Abstract>https://emergentresearch.org/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=13924&amp;title=Hornet Pests of honey bees in the Indian Himalayas and a low cost trapping device for their eco-friendly management</Abstract>