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      <JournalTitle>Emergent Life Sciences Research</JournalTitle>
      <PISSN>2395-6658 (</PISSN>
      <EISSN>) 2395-664X (Print)</EISSN>
      <Volume-Issue>Vol 8, Issue 2, Published on 31</Volume-Issue>
      <Season>December 2022</Season>
      <ArticleType>Research Article</ArticleType>
      <ArticleTitle>Optimization of composite flour-based sugar-free muffins</ArticleTitle>
          <FirstName>Avinash Singh</FirstName>
      <Abstract>Muffins are among high sucrose-containing bakery products enjoyed globally for their soft texture and great taste. Its excess consumption results in high-calorie intake, leading to many health problems such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disorders, etc. Replacement of sucrose from muffins helps in the preparation of low-calorie bakery products. The objective of the current study was the preparation of sugar-free muffins and examining their effect on the height and textural attributes. Refined flour was replaced with millet-legume-based composite flour selected from our previous work. Statistical analysis was done using the central composite design of Design Expert, v.11. Polydextrose and guar-gum were the variables, and height, hardness, fracturability, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, and resilience were the responses in the experimental design. The ANOVA, R2, and R2 adjusted values for all the responses except cohesiveness and resilience showed a significant effect of polydextrose and guar-gum on the height and textural quality of sugar-free muffin. Replacement of sucrose resulted in muffins with lower height (p ?0.01), more hardness, more fracturability, lesser springiness, adhesiveness (p?0.05), and no significant effect on cohesiveness and resilience. Incorporating composite flour containing high fiber and protein in the muffin formulation may be another reason for the present findings. However, adding polydextrose and guar-gum to sugar-free muffins has helped to prepare low-calorie products with accepted quality attributes. The best solution from optimization with a design expert was polydextrose (12.627%) and guar-gum (0.707%) with a desirability value of 0.791. These sugar-free muffins will help the bakery industry achieve the new goal of preparing less energy-containing functional foods. In the future, this research will help food technologists and bakery experts to prepare sugar-free muffins with desirable quality.</Abstract>
      <Keywords>bakery product, composite flour, design expert, guar-gum, polydextrose, sugar-free Muffin</Keywords>
        <Abstract>https://emergentresearch.org/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=13991&amp;title=Optimization of composite flour-based sugar-free muffins</Abstract>