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      <JournalTitle>Emergent Life Sciences Research</JournalTitle>
      <PISSN>2395-6658 (</PISSN>
      <EISSN>) 2395-664X (Print)</EISSN>
      <ArticleType>Research Article</ArticleType>
      <ArticleTitle>Productivity and net returns of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) under varied crop geometry and soil moisture conservation practices</ArticleTitle>
      <Abstract>Rice, a staple food crop, offers food and nutrition security to millions of people. Various biotic and abiotic stresses affect yield and quality of rice, among which soil moisture stress is a major constraint under rainfed upland conditions. However, crop improvement strategies have partially managed to resolve the challenges presented by abiotic stresses, but the complexity and multiplicity necessitate the use of crop improvement along with agronomic interventions to stabilize the productivity and profitability of rice. An experimental trial was carried out during Kharif, 2019 at instructional farm, college of agriculture, Kerala, to study the influence of cropping geometry and in-situ soil moisture conservation practices on growth and yield of upland rice. The farm is located at 8.50°N latitude, 76.90°E longitude, at an elevation of 29 m above MSL, in a warm, humid tropical climate. The study used RCBD design with two crop geometries and soil moisture conservation practices. The results revealed that paired row planting along with live mulching of cowpea, hydrogel and coir pith compost application outperformed other treatments in terms of higher growth with LAI of 4.81, dry matter production of 5546 kg ha-1, and productivity with grain yield of 3825kg ha-1, straw yield of 7700kg ha-1, moisture content (29.12% at 60DAS and 18.49% at physiological maturity) and lowest proline content (0.26) and maximum net returns (62887 Rs ha-1). The BC ratio of the treatment T9 is less compared to the treatment T7 (Paired row planting with live mulching of cowpea and hydrogel application) but on par with each other and the lower BCR of T9 is mainly due to the additional cost of coir pith compost included in the treatment.</Abstract>
      <Keywords>Crop geometry,Paired row,Hydrogel,Live mulch,Upland rice</Keywords>
        <Abstract>https://emergentresearch.org/ubijournal-v1copy/journals/abstract.php?article_id=14893&amp;title=Productivity and net returns of upland rice (Oryza sativa L.) under varied crop geometry and soil moisture conservation practices</Abstract>