Date of Publication: 30-Nov--0001
Technologies for Cashew productivity enhancement in Maharashtra
Author: M. S. Gawankar, M. M. Kulkarni, P. M. Haldankar, B. R. Salvi
Category: Review Article
Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) is a native of Brazil and was introduced into India by Portuguese during the 16th century with the objective of soil conservation and forestation. However, India is the first country in the world to exploit the international trade of Cashew kernels. Today India is the largest producer, processor, consumer, and exporter of the cashew in the world with 8.55 lakh hectares, and total production of 6.20 lakh MT of raw nuts with the productivity of 800 kg per hectare.
Diverse agro-climatic conditions, increasing irrigation potential, progressive research, and innovative farmers receptive to new ideas and technologies are all the factors that combined to offer tremendous scope for commercial horticulture in the Maharashtra state. The ambitious horticulture development program linked with the employment guarantee scheme by the Government of Maharashtra resulted in a substantial increase in the area under various fruit crops. Before the inception of massive horticulture development program in 1990-91, the area under cashew was only 40,000 hectares which has now crossed a level of 1.83 lakh hectares. The average productivity in the state of Maharashtra is 1.5 t/ha. This is due to strong research backup from the State Agriculture University and efforts taken by the extension officers for the transfer of technologies and popularizing the high yielding bold type hybrid varieties developed by Dr. B.S. Konkan Krishi Vidyapeeth, Dapoli.
However, still there is a scope for increasing the productivity to the tune of 2 t/ha with little refinements in the management practices, adoption process, and creating awareness among the farmers.
Keywords: cashew, high yielding varieties, processing, technology